Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks. AI is taking over the world at great speed. The term is applied to systems that show human intelligence, such as reasoning, understanding, learning from mistakes and discovering meaning. Computers have shown speed and capability to do complex programs such as play chess, code, and analyze data since the 1940s and have improved in speed over the years. But it is said still it is no match to human thinking and complexity in tasks requiring in-depth knowledge. But it is also being said artificial intelligence is at par with certain human tasks such as voice recognition, Search Engines, medical diagnosis etc.
Early milestones in AI
The first AI programs
Christopher Strachey wrote the earliest AI program in 1951 and became the programming research group director at the University of Oxford. The checker’s program ran on the Ferranti Mark I computer and, by 1952, could play a complete game of checkers at a reasonable speed.
A demonstration of successful machine learning was published in 1952. Shopper, by Anthony Oettinger, ran on the EDSAC computer. Shopper’s simulated world was a mall of eight shops, and when instructed to purchase an item, it would search for it by visiting shops till the item was found and memorizing a few items on the way like a human would do. Next time shopper was sent out to buy the same item or a different item, it had already located, and so it would go to the shop straight away.
How does Artificial Intelligence Learn?
Different kinds of learning are applied to AI. The easiest is the trial and error method. For example, a computer trying to solve a chess game may win in one way and store the information so that the next time the computer encounters a situation, it will remember the stored solution. This procedure is known as rote learning. A more complex implementation problem is known as generalization, which involves applying past experience to similar new solutions. For example, learning a new word and converting it into past tense may not be possible by the computer unless it has been previously entered into the computer. In contrast, the computer can automatically add the past tense rule based on its experience with other words under generalization.
Importance of AI
It makes our lives easier as technology reduces the human effort to a great extent. Due to their automated work, a lot of effort and time is saved. Manual intervention is required at the least.
Speed is another critical factor. These machines tend to speed up the tasks and processes with great speed and accuracy. It further makes the world almost an error-free place through automation. They are not only related to our everyday lives but hold vitality in other areas too.
In today’s world, artificial intelligence plays an essential role in making human lives easier. AI is used in social media, which is used abundantly by almost every person in medicine and driving technology. In the coming future, AI will grow rapidly, challenging humans in every sphere.